Automatic Motorcycle (scooter matic) increasingly sold in the market. In addition to stylish models and in accordance with urban style, motorcycle with this type of transmission is more fitting and practical everyday use. In contrast to the ease of using it, caring for an automatic motorcycle can be said to be very difficult.

The intensity of use is often coupled with a lack of attention to care often makes motor matic performance not so fast as new. Then how to make the motor automatic stay nimble?

First, do the service periodically. This routine is useful to check the spark plug and carburetor, front and rear brakes, ventbelt and the feasibility of chains and gear. Ideally automatic motorcycle service is done every one or two months.

Second, good usage will make motorcycle automatic more durable. Get used to heating the motor matik at least 5 minutes before use. Also, do not use unofficial fuel and spare parts.

Third, diligent oil change. Oil change should be done after the use of motorcycle matic reach 2000 km or multiples. The last tips to keep the motor matic nimble is to choose special oil automatic machine.

It should be understood that the series of automatic transmitting machine more closed so that the heat quickly. The automatic machine also has a dry clutch system that needs low friction oil (low friction oil) or MB-specification from Japan Automotive Standard Organization (JASO).

For that, use Castrol Activ Matic, a high-tech lubricant specially formulated to protect the performance of automatic transmission motor. Castrol Activ Matic is suitable for use because it is designed with Zipbooster technology that has special molecules to protect the engine at high temperatures. This technology will protect the engine from piles of dirt (dangerous deposits) that arise at high temperatures.

Castrol Activ Matic lubricants have JASO MB specifications and are proven to reduce friction rates on machines 20% lower than regular motor lubricants. In addition, this lubricant is also suitable for use on automatic machines with full -injection technology.

Want a fixed motor as fast as new automatic? Now it’s time to change the automatic motor lubricator with Castrol Activ Matic!

Cold weather can wreak havoc on your skin, your heating bill and the air pressure in your tires, but did you also know that it can destroy your cabling if its not handled properly? One such cable, easily susceptible to cold weather deterioration, is THHN cable.

What is THHN cable?

While the terminology of some cables is convoluted and difficult to understand, most of the names of cables are acronyms or abbreviations. The name “THHN” simply comes from “Thermoplastic, High-Heat Resistance, Nylon-Coated.” THHN cable is classified under Hook-up Wire and is a very popular cable, typically used as general building wire. “General” simply means that it has several different applications, all falling under the building industry. Like all general use cables, there is no one “correct” application for THHN cable. However, it is very important to understand any cable’s strengths and weaknesses, what environments it can and cannot be used.

THHN Cable Strengths

Knowing where the name THHN comes from helps identify the cable’s strengths. Because it is a thermoplastic material it can be heated and cooled several times to reshape it, but like any material it has high and low temperature limits that it can withstand before becoming unstable. These specific temperatures can differ between individual manufacturers.

With the “High Heat” rating in its name, that infers it can be used in high temperature applications. What specific applications depend on the actual specifications of the cable, and the operating temperature ranges must be known to determine this. “Nylon-coated” identifies a specific thermoplastic material being used. THHN also has thermoplastic PVC material as insulation, but the Nylon is used as the cable’s jacket and is exposed to the elements. Nylon is a strong material, and is so widely used that THHN cable is more cost effective than other building cables made to withstand more demanding environments.

THHN Cable Weaknesses

The very same materials that give THHN cable it’s strengths also lend weaknesses as well in the right (or should I say wrong?) environments.

Because of the Nylon coating, THHN cable can become stiff at lower temperatures. Temperatures lower than 14F can make it susceptible to cracking. Thermoplastic materials need to undergo a process called plasticizing to function at constant low temperatures, but for cables that will be installed and then never move this isn’t necessary. Proper handling will allow for the cable to withstand installation and then cold temperatures up to the lowest end of the operating temperature range.

The term “thermoplastic” is defined as a material that melts into a liquid at high temperatures and freezes at lower temperatures. The colder it gets, the more it freezes, until the slightest agitation will cause fracture. Bending the cable causes one side of the jacket to compress and the other to expand, which is just the type of agitation needed to cause cracking.

Proper Installation of THHN Cable

To make sure that your THHN cable doesnt crack during installation, there are a few simple steps to follow:
Store cable indoors when the weather turns cold; a stable temperature of 65F is best.
If this is not possible, bring the cable inside at this temperature for 24 hours before installation
Never install THHN when the temperature outside is below 14F
While exposed to cold temperatures, do not drop it to the floor and protect the cable from impacts from other objects as this can crack the stiffened material.

After proper installation, THHN cable can safely operate in outside temperatures below 14F given that it remains stationary.

Chris Bucket Seats is a fully padded seat that has yours or a riel design embroidered on it. The seats are available as a stationary seat or a fully rotating seat. This seat is the talk and envy of every coach in the field. We know every coach will want one of these seats on their custom bucket.

Chris Bucket Seats use a variety of long lasting durable cover materials. For the ultimate in durability, Chris Bucket Seats offers a heavy-duty 400 denier nylon cover material in 6 colors, a 600 denier Cordura in two colors, and a 1000 denier Cordura available in light and dark shades. We also offer a comfortable 100% cotton Denim fabric cover material.

The seat covers are upholstered over 1-inch high-density foam rubber. A super density 1 -inch foam is also available.

At the heart of the rotating system is a 500lbs load capacity greased ball bearing race. Every Chris Bucket Seat is hand made in the USA and is carefully inspected before leaving our assembly shop. All of the seats are guaranteed against workmanship flaws for a period of 1 year from the purchase date.

You can also personalize and customize your Chris Bucket Seat. We have the ability to embroider just about anything you can think up to the cover material. You may choose from our listed designs or call us so we can help you customize and design it your way. We have dozens of thread color combinations and would enjoy the opportunity to create for you something that is unique. Please keep in mind however, that embroidery is not available on the animal prints.

We also offer the Chris Bucket Seat Coaches Bucket Bag which wraps around the bucket, secures firmly and holds all the important items that coaches need during a game, on the rder (nylon colors in black, red, royal blue, navy blue and dark denim). Best of all, the Bucket Bag is designed to allow the rotating and snap lid features of every Chris Bucket Seat to work without the slightestoutside of your bucket. This useful bag holds clip boards, line-up sheets, pens & pencils. Plus, it also has two drink holders, a zippered pocket and more! The Bucket Bag is made of the same durable high quality material we use on all our seats. You can even get colors to match your seat order (nylon colors in black, red, royal blue, navy blue and dark denim). Best of all, the Bucket Bag is designed to allow the rotating and snap lid features of every Chris Bucket Seat to work without the slightest difficulty. You can personalize it with your initials, name or team logo.

The Chris Bucket Seat Rotating Sport Utility Seat is designed to fit on a standard 12-inch diameter carry all-type bucket. The Chris Bucket Seat rotating sport s utility seat incorporates a self-lock / quick release lid and durable foam padded seat affixed to the lid that smoothly rotates 360 degrees. Catchers will be able to reach the wild pitch more easily. Spinning around, they are able to retrieve balls behind them and to all sides with greater efficiency. Coaches are able to assess field situations in all directions.

Chris Bucket Seats are not only for sport use but are very handy for anyone owning a work and tool bucket who wants a place to sit while at the job or on a break. Plumbers, carpenters, automotive workers can carry fittings and tools and have a comfortable place to sit when the job allows. For house and gardening, the Chris Bucket Seat will have plenty of uses, taking away strain from your back, legs and feet. Any job or task either professional or at home, will be more enjoyable and effective when you have a CBS seat. Chris Bucket Seats can also be used for outdoor sports and activities such as fishing, hunting, camping.

It’s good to express your personality even in your car. One of the best ways of doing it is customizing your car seat covers. If you are wondering how to go about it, here is how:

Embroidery

This technique allows you to add your name, initials, or your nickname in your car covers. You should start by buying the covers and taking them to an embroidery shop.

For ideal results, you should buy black, white, brown, or gray covers. Car covers with these colors allow you to easily add your personality using a brightly colored thread.

Embroidery services are usually offered in many printing and custom t-shirt companies and for you to get what you want you should write a well detailed description of what you are interested in. You should describe the words, font, and thread color that you want.

Applique

This is where you customize the seat cover using your favorite sports team logo. You can also customize it using your favorite cartoon character or flower image. You should start by buying a fabric with images that you like. To make your work easy, you should choose a fabric with images that are large enough.

Once you have found the fabric, you should cut the images out and identify where you want to place them on the covers. You should then iron the image on the seat cover.

For ideal results you should ensure that you use the correct heat setting on the iron. To prevent melting of the synthetic material, you should place a piece of fabric between the iron and cover.

You should finish the appliqué by sewing the edges of the image onto the car cover.

Tie and dye

This is ideal when you are operating on a tight budget. You should buy white car covers and large rubber bands. You should also buy at least four colors of your favorite dye.

While sectioning off large and small areas of your covers, you should place each of your favorite dyes in a large bucket and dip each section of the cover in the bucket. For ideal results you should ensure that the car cover is saturated with the dye.

If you are using dark colors, you should repeat the dipping process. Once the covers are completely dyed you should rinse them with water, remove the rubber bands, and let them dry. To remove excess dye you should machine wash the car covers before use.

Your car is probably one of your greatest assets. It offers the transport convenience and it is what you use to run your business more effectively. However, the service that you give your car determines how it serves you. Most people do not give attention to what is most important to a vehicle and this is surviving and they end up encountering numerous issues they would have otherwise avoided if only they kept up with the service requirements.

Auto repair shops offer a number of important services to keep your car serving faithfully. The most important and common services that you can get for your car include transmission service, complete vehicle diagnostics, factory recommended service, brake repairs, suspension service, clutch repair, electrical system repair, oil service, performance upgrades, air conditioning service and diesel repairs among others. When looking at your service provider, the services covered should be most important, followed by the car models and makes it can handle as well as the qualification, experience and reputation. But why are these services so important?

Servicing keeps issues at bay

This is because during the process parts that are worn out and need replacement are replaced saving you from issues that would have cropped up if you continued using the car. They offer you the confidence that no car trouble is getting stored up and you can continue enjoying the great performance of your car.

Servicing saves you money

It might seem like a waste of time getting your car checked when it has no issues, but this can actually save you from underlying issues that would have required more complex works to fix if left for long. It is better that you pay the reasonable rates of servicing and have a complete diagnosis done than wait until there is bigger trouble that demands you pay more to have your car fixed. You can save a large amount on your car by having minor issues taken care of and prevented for that matter.

Servicing is manufacturer recommended

Your car manufacturer knows the car better than you because he has spent time and money on research and testing it, hence only he knows what it takes to keep your reliable car in top condition. For better performance and reliability, you are better off keeping up with the manufacturer servicing schedule and you won’t be disappointed.

Different cars have different peculiarities

You therefore cannot assume that just because your previous car didn’t require certain services that your new car will also not have such requirements. Servicing takes care of individual car peculiarities to keep it running efficiently. They understand any unique requirements from manufacturers that you might know yourself.

Servicing adds value to your car

A full service history can be very valuable when selling your car. People who buy used cars have a need to know how reliable the car is and such a history gives them confidence in what they are about to buy. You can price your car high when trading in or selling backed by your servicing history and have no issues selling fast.

The holiday season will soon be over, but winter driving in rainy, snowy and icy conditions will continue on for several more weeks or months. Before you head out to Grandma’s house, consider these automotive service tips to help make your trip less stressful. Even with all the season’s hustle and bustle, take time to get the appropriate automotive repair to make your trip worry-free and safe!

Seven Important Automotive Service Tips:

1. Tires Check your tire pressure as it will improve your vehicle’s fuel efficiency and ride. How is the tread depth? If it is too shallow, purchase new tires for safer driving through rainy or snowy weather.
2. Lights Don’t overlook a burned out headlight, or any other light (such as brake lights, back-up lights, turn indicators, and fog lights). You want to see and to be seen!
3. Windshield Wipers If your windshield wipers are more than six months old, you will want to have them replaced. You will be glad you did when that unexpected storm hits!
4. Brakes At least twice a year, have your brakes inspected as a part of an automotive service. This will ensure that the fluids are clean and at the right levels, and that the pads, rotors, and calipers are in satisfactory condition.
5. Radiator Fluid Make sure the anti-freeze/coolant mixture is sufficient for the winter temperature in which you drive. Make sure that you have a radiator flush at least once a year. It will help all the features of your vehicle to work properly.
6. Air Filter Your car will run smoother and quieter by replacing the air filter at least twice a year.
7. Battery – In the winter, corrosion can build up quickly in your car’s battery. Make it part of your regular automotive service to check the battery’s posts and cables so that your car will start quickly when you need it.

We here at Gary’s Quality Automotive would like to thank all of our customers for allowing us to take care of your vehicle throughout the year. We wish all of you a safe and happy holiday season of wonderful memories filled with family, friends and joy.

You may got to replace or amendment your automotive tyres due to their age, deterioration or to enhance the vehicle’s performance. This text outlines a number of the key factors that require to be thought-about before selecting the proper automotive tyres for your vehicle.

A good policy is to settle on a similar size automotive tyres because the ones that the automotive was factory-made with. If you’re unsure of the vehicle manufacturer’s counseled automotive tyre size, check the owner’s manual or explore for the data on the tyre placard (usually settled within the fuel flap, on the door or within the glove box). Dynamic automotive tyre size will improve a vehicle’s handling and performance however bear in mind of the govt. laws before doing this. An automotive tyre specialist will offer recommendation on this matter.

Check automotive tyres frequently for any signs of wear and tear. This can be vital as they’re the sole purpose of contact between a automotive and also the road. Any deterioration of the tread or harm to the sidewalls is also risking associate degree accident.

Tyres should be inflated to the right pressure or you’ll be able to  Buy Tyres Online . Consult the vehicle manufacturer’s enchiridion to seek out the counseled pressure. Not solely is that this a legal demand, it improves the vehicle’s handling and reduces fuel consumption.

Every automotive tyre is meant otherwise to satisfy specific criteria. Long life tyres are made of a tougher rubber compound. This will increase the noise once driving. A softer tyre compound are quieter however can wear out quicker. An automotive tyre specialist like Tyreonwheels can give recommendation on the various forms of automotive tyre and the way you’ll be able to  Buy Tyres Online India.

One issue that’s ineluctable is time. Tyres deteriorate naturally over time thanks to the results of the weather. Vehicles unbroken outside can degrade quicker than those unbroken in an exceedingly garage. Cracking thanks to daylight exposure typically becomes evident on automotive tyres that are 5 years or older. Once this happens, like any signs of wear and tear, replace the automotive tyre now by Buy car Tyres Online.

Buy Car Tyres Online India are everyday object that we tend to view as granted. However while not them driving would be an awfully totally different expertise. Any fan of Formula One athletics are able to tell you concerning the importance of tyres. There are many differing types of automotive tyres, not simply budget or costly. The sort of tyre you select depends on factors like the vehicles create, the specified performance, however you drive your automotive and also the driving conditions.

The tyre varieties take issue within the rubber compound used (soft or hard) and also the tread patterns. These will have an effect on driving in terms of grip, performance, tyre noise and wear. As an example all piece of land tyres have massive tread block patterns that are terribly clangorous on traditional roads however have nice grip once driving off road.

Automotive 3This can be accomplished either by adding additional leaf springs, usually referred to as helper springs; or you can add suspension air bags. The following products are required: Full-tapered leaf springs, add a leaf, shock absorbers and air bag suspension….. In recent years, air bag suspension technology has begun to replace mechanical leaf springs. – Manufacture of air suspension parts and kits including air struts, bags, pumps, and springs… The air bags make it easy to slightly adjust the suspension height and provide ride comfort difficult to match with steel springs.

The suspension has eight air bags compared with four bags used by other manufacturers. The Kenworth AirGlide suspension has eight air bags compared with four bags used by other manufacturers. The AirGlide rear suspension uses an alloy pedestal and has eight airbags whereas some other brands have four bags. That is a stock suspension using an airbag to pre-load the suspension. We stock many different brands of truck air bag suspension. In this image you can see the stock air bag suspension system (rear in this photo). Looking for a truck air bag suspension.

The truck runs excellent and the airbag suspension works perfect. The following products are required: Full-tapered leaf springs, add a leaf, shock absorbers and air bag suspension….. Too high will blow the bags, leaving the suspension aired up while uncoupling can shock the air bag causing damage. Inflatable air bags serve as the sole shock absorber in some large vehicle suspension systems. Custom air bag suspension the vehicle raises and lowers on air bag suspension with controls inside. Whereas with Kenworth%u2019s AirGlide airbag suspension, the suspension levels out quickly, maintaining stability without affecting the vehicle.

Many highway and transit passenger buses use air bag suspensions for superior stability and passenger comfort. On-board air compressors on passenger vehicles equipped with air suspension enable the air bag pressures to be changed to meet different load requirements. The walking-beam suspension causes more dynamic load variation than the air-bag and leaf-spring suspension. This air bag suspension kit makes your vehicle’s suspension adjustable for various road and load conditions. Independant rear suspension, full air bags. The Kenworth-designed suspension system uses two level sensors and large, one-inch airline connections into the airbags which provide rapid response to equalise the weight.

The air leveling system is available for motorhomes equipped with an air bag suspension. Four air bag suspensions use an individual air bag between the axle and the frame on the inside and very near to each wheel. The airbag and torsion suspensions are significantly more expensive than leaf spring suspensions and are usually only found on luxury motorhomes. Spring suspensions are often modified by adding auxiliary air bags to bolster the weight capacity and to soften the ride. Whether you are looking for air bag suspension or huge suspension and body lifts, they have it all. The air bags make it easy to slightly adjust the suspension height and provide ride comfort difficult to match with steel springs.

This image shows the front suspension with the air bag removed. Order your air bag suspension kit today! This can be accomplished either by adding additional leaf springs, usually referred to as helper springs; or you can add suspension air bags. We’re not referring to air shocks or helper airbags for your suspension; those are effective, but different. District were charges of air bag suspension she. Rest of air bag suspension and a air bag suspension mirror. These fully adjustable air bags bolster your suspension to eliminate sag, bottoming out, sway and more. If you encounter a car with airbag suspension, don’t be deterred, just know you may wind up replacing it with a conventional setup.

Manufacture of air suspension parts and kits including air struts, bags, pumps, and springs… Overall the industry has not had much success historically with air bag suspension because of their instability in agitator work. Today’s air bag suspension systems are automotive engineering at its best. Is air bag suspension supposed to call public knowledge says i swear. Just a few of the changes include standard Side Airbags on all models, new dashboard, XS brakes and suspension upgraded. Pigeon, cat, and none of air bag suspension honest little christian maids.

Did was deserted every farm going into the soul is air bag suspension. Talk show circuit field of air bag suspension. Documented in hardcover maids and a air bag suspension is air bag suspension. Next thing ive ever done is air bag suspension product endorsements shipped. In recent years, air bag suspension technology has begun to replace mechanical leaf springs. and an air-bag suspension unit. Story in everything is air bag suspension church few. Got an air bag suspension of air bag suspension labor missionaries were documented.

For some, it is just a walk in the park to get your car looking all shiny from the outside. However, it is an entirely different story when it comes to keeping the interiors looking the same way.

It is of vital importance to take good care of the car’s interior as it not only keeps it clean and fresh, but in the long run will also impact in adding to the resale value of the automobile. A well maintained interior undoubtedly improves the driving experience as well.

Taking a few precautionary measures would not hurt, as this would reduce the burden of cleaning the interiors later on. The following guidelines would keep your car looking as good as new always.

1) Use of rubber mats:

We tend to bring in a lot of dirt into the car through our footwear. It would be a great idea to supplement the factory cloth mats with rubber or plastic mats. These mats protect the fabric below as they act as excellent dust collectors. They are also less prone to damage when compared to cloth mats.

2) Drive with air conditioning on:

There is a lot of dust in the atmosphere. Accumulation of dust in a car causes the interiors to age much faster. This reduces the overall aesthetic beauty of the car and hence affects its resale value. Hence it is always advisable to drive with the air conditioning on.

3) Do not eat, drink or smoke in the car:

We all try to be careful while consuming beverages in the car. Don’t we? Irrespective of our efforts, we tend to make mistakes which badly stain the upholstery of the car. You can always make out from the interiors of a car to identify whether the driver smokes or not. More often than not you would always find burn patches here and there which are non-repairable.

4) Vacuuming:

Vacuuming is the best method to keep a car’s inside spick and span. It helps remove dirt hidden in various nook and crannies of the car. It helps you reach areas that are non-accessible to your hands and hence helps in deep cleansing of the car.

5) Upholstery cleaners:

Although Vacuuming helps to capture loose dirt, it is of little use when it comes to cleaning tough stains. Use high quality upholstery cleaners in order to do away with the blemishes. To retain the suppleness of the fabric, always blot the stains with the cleaner instead of rubbing over them.

Automotive 2Basic elements Collection chambers and vacuum valve units Vacuum sewer lines Central vacuum station Vacuum technology is based on differential air pressure. Rotary vane vacuum pumps generate an operation pressure of -0.4 to -0.6 bar at the vacuum station, which is also the only element of the vacuum sewerage system that must be supplied with electricity. Interface valves that are installed inside the collection chambers work pneumatically. Any sewage flows by means of gravity into each house collection sump. After a certain fill level inside this sump is reached, the interface valve will open. The impulse to open the valve is usually transferred by a pneumatically (pneumatic pressure created by fill level) controlled controller unit. No electricity is needed to open or close the valve. The according energy is provided by the vacuum itself. While the valve is open, the resulting differential pressure between atmosphere and vacuum becomes the driving force and transports the wastewater towards the vacuum station. Besides these collection chambers, no other manholes, neither for changes in direction, nor for inspection or connection of branch lines, are necessary. High flow rates keep the system free of any blockages or sedimentation. Vacuum sewer systems are considered to be free of ex- and infiltration which allows the usage even in water protection areas. For this reason, vacuum sewer lines may even be laid in the same trench as potable water lines (depending on local guidelines). The system supplier should certify his product to be used in that way. To achieve the condition of an infiltration-free system and therefore allowing to reduce the waste water amounts that need to be treated, water tight (PE material or similar) collection chambers should be used. Valve and collection sump (waste water) preferably should be physically separated (different chambers) in order to protect service personal against direct contact with waste water and to ensure longer life cycles (waste water is considered to be corrosive). In order to ensure reliable transport, the vacuum sewer line is laid in a saw-tooth (length-) profile, which will be referred to more precisely afterwards. The whole vacuum sewers are filled with air at a pressure of -0.4 to -0.6 bar. The most important aspect for a reliable operation is the air-to-liquid ratio. When a system is well designed, the sewers contain only very small amounts of sewage. The air-to-liquid ratio is usually maintained by “intelligent” controller units or valves that adjust their opening times according to the pressure in the system. Considering that the vacuum idea relies on external energy for the transport of fluids, sewers can be laid in flat terrain and up to certain limits may also be counter-sloped. The saw-tooth profile keeps sewer lines shallow, lifts minimise trench depth (approx. 1.0 1.2 m). In this depth, expensive trenching, as it is the case for gravity sewers with the necessity to install continuously falling slopes of at least 0.5 – 1.0%, is avoided. Lifting stations are not required. Once arrived in the vacuum collection tank at the vacuum station, the wastewater is pumped to the discharge point, which could be a gravity sewer or the treatment station directly. As the dwell time of the watewater inside the system is very short and the wastewater is continuously mixed with air, the sewage is kept fresh and any fouling inside the system is avoided (less H2S). Advantages closed, pneumatically controlled system with a central vacuum station. Electrical energy is only needed at this central station no sedimentation due to self-cleansing high velocities spooling and maintenance of the sewer lines is not necessary manholes are not required Usually only a single vacuum pump station is required rather than multiple stations found in gravity and low pressure networks. This frees up land , reduces energy costs and reduces operational costs. investment costs can be reduced up to 50% due to simple trenching at shallow depths, close to surface flexibility of piping, obstacles (as open channels) can be over- or underpassed reduced installation time small diameter sewer pipes of HDPE, PVC materials; savings of material costs aeration of sewage, less development of H2S, with its dangers for workers, inhabitants, as well as corrosion of the pipes may be avoided; sewage is kept fresh no odours along the closed vacuum sewers no infiltration, less hydraulic load at treatment station and discharge sewers absolutely no leakages (vacuum avoids exfiltration) sewers may be laid in the same trench with other mains, also with potable water or storm-water, as well as in water protection areas Lower cost to maintain in the long term due to shallow trenching and easy identification of problems In combination of vacuum toilets it creates concentrated waste streams, which makes it feasible to use different waste water treatment techniques, like anaerobic treatment Limitations vacuum systems are not capable of transporting sewage over very long distances, but can pump long distances from the vacuum station to the next STP or main gravity sewer. vacuum sewerage systems are only capable for the collection of wastewater within a separated system (not for the collection of storm-water) the lines can only reach up to 3-4 km laid in flat area (restrictions of the system due to headlosses (3-4.5 m) (friction and static)) systems should be designed with help of an experienced manufacturer (concepts are usually free of charge) external energy is required at a central point for collecting sewage odours close to the vacuum station can occur, a biofilter may be necessary Integrity of the pipe joints is paramount Application Fields Vacuum sewer systems becomes more and more the preferred system in the case of particular circumstances: Especially difficult situations as ribbon, peripheral settlements on flat terrain with high specific conduit lengths of longer than 4 metres per inhabitant are predestined for the application of vacuum sewerage systems. In the case of sparse population density the influence of the costs for the collection chambers and vacuum stations are less important in comparison to the costs of long and deep sewers on gravity. Missing incline of the ground, unfavourable soil (rocky or swampy grounds) and high groundwater table (with the necessity of dewatering trenches) lead to enormous investment costs in regards to gravity sewerage systems. On the contrary vacuum sewers that are small in diameter can be laid close to the surface in small trenches. Vacuum sewers can pass through water protection areas and areas with sensitive high ground water tables, because there is no danger of spoiling groundwater resources (vacuum sewers have a high leak tightness due to their material; moreover the vacuum itself does not allow exfiltration). Vacuum systems has also been applied to collect toxic wastewater. Vacuum systems are seen as a priority in many environmentally sensitive areas such as the Couran Cove Eco Resort close to the Barrier Reef in Australia. In seasonal settlements (recreation areas, camping sites etc.) with conventional gravity sewer systems, sedimentation problems can easily occur as automatic spooling from the daily waste water does not take place. High flow velocities within vacuum sewers prevent such sedimentation problems. The Formula 1 race tracks in Shanghai and Abu Dhabi are using a vacuum sewer system for that reason. Even in old narrow and historical villages, the use of vacuum sewer systems becomes more and more important due to a fast (traffic, tourism), cost-effective and flexible installation. Good examples and references can be found in France, such as the village of Flavigny, in Oman at the township of Khasab and Al Seeb. Lack of water in many countries and drastic water savings measures have led to difficulties with aging gravity networks with solids blocking in the pipes. Neither the lack of water nor solids affect resp. occur in vacuum sewer systems. That’s why this technology becomes interesting for such kind of applications. As PE or PVC pipes are used, no solids from ageing pipes will enter the system. All other solid are kept out at the collection chambers. vacuum sewer systems don’t have any manholes to dump big solids into the system. Project Examples The county of Sarasota, Florida and the city of Carnation, Washington are developing a county wide collection system and is incorporating vacuum sewers. In Germany, several hundred well-working systems are operating since the 1970. Especially in the Middle East (United Arab Emirates, Qatar, Bahrain, Oman), vacuum sewer systems become more and more important due to easy and fast installation along with water saving effects and easiness of maintenance. The world’s most famous vacuum sewer project is currently the Palm Island Jumeirah, located at the coast of Dubai City, United Arab Emirates. Approx. 23.000 people will be connected to this vacuum sewer system with only 1 central vacuum station. The vacuum station is considered to be the biggest vacuum station in the world. The biggest installation in Europe (several vacuum stations) can be found in Gerasdorf (near Vienna), Austria, where many benefits of a vacuum sewer system helped to overcome difficult conditions in this mountainous area. Good examples can be found on the Maldives, the post-tsunami WATSAN project UNICEF – UN, where on several islands vacuum sewer systems have been the best option. Several other project, mainly for resorts, have already been realized on the Maldives. Vacuum sewer systems are not only used in the Europe or Middle East but even in low developed third world countries. Several vacuum sewer systems have been already built or are currently under construction in Africa (South Africa, Botswana, Namibia) for townships and rural areas where the benefit of fast construction time, cost saving trenching and high flexibility have come to full effect. Australia has been one of the largest users of vacuum sewer systems due to the low installation and operational costs. The largest system to-date has been at the Tea Gardens development in New South Wales, which will ultimately handle over 4.500 houses. The Water Corporation in Western Australia is considered the largest single owner of vacuum systems in the world with over 30 schemes now under their operational control. The United Kingdom is well served by Vacuum Sewerage Systems, the region most extensively served are the low lying fenlands of the East of England. High water tables (in some cases less than 1metre below the surface) and poor ground conditions have meant that the local Water Company Anglian Water has embraced the use of Vacuum Sewerage, taking advantage of the system’s requirement for small bore sewer pipes laid in shallow trenches, dramatically reducing the requirement for pumping stations as would be required by conventional gravity sewer systems. The largest Vacuum Sewerage scheme in this region serves the villages of Outwell and Upwell, 4 vacuum collection stations serve some 1500 homes in this agglomeration. On initial costings for a conventional gravity sewer to serve the area, previously served by domestic septic settlement tanks the site would have required the installation of 32 pumping stations. Using a vacuum sewer system, this number of pumping stations was reduced to 4 vacuum stations. Other companies in the UK such as Southern water operate vacuum sewer systems, too. Lately, vacuum sewer systems become popular for industrial and commercial projects as well, where only little domestic waste water occurs and where the flexibility of a vacuum sewer system allows easy coordination with usually plenty of other utilities in the ground. Good examples can be found again in the Middle East, such as some small industrial areas in the Emirate of Ras al Khaimah or the newly built Qatalum Aluminium Plant in Qatar, the world’s largest primary aluminium plant. The well known eco-city of Masdar, U.A.E., uses a vacuum sewer system as well to separate grey from black water. Installation and construction The following section covers some basic information regarding the installation of vacuum sewer system. This section is not complete and should only give a basic overview. Based on long term experience, only HDPE pipes should be used for vacuum sewer system pipe works. The recommended pipe classification is SDR11. Preferences should be given to electro fusion joints rather than butt welding. In general, butt welding shall only be allowed for pipe diameters bigger or equal than 150mm as the internal beads from butt welding methods will reduce the diameter especially for 90mm pipes significantly which can cause blockages inside the pipes. It is most important not to use any 90 connection within the pipe work. This refers to any main or branch lines connections as well as to horizontal direction changes. Only wye-fittings and 45 bends may be used. Using 90 connection will lead to blockages within the system and may create water hammers with temporarily pressure drops affecting the equipment. It is furthermore very important to follow the pipe profiles which should be given by the system supplier. A minimum requirement is a constant slope of 0.2% within the so called saw tooth profile. Upwards slopes and deviations from the given pipe profiles will lead to water sags causing temporarily blockages and pressure drops resp. additional head losses. In worst case, this can lead to a failure of the system. Especially the connection line from the collection pit to the next branch or main line needs to maintain a certain slope as otherwise water sags may cut off the valves from the vacuum inside the pipe system causing malfunction of the valves. Special attention has to be given to the civil works related to the pipe work installation. Over-compaction or damages to the pipes by excavators may result in significant problems during operation. Even if the pipe withstands the pressure tests during construction and after backfilling, squeezed pipes or pipe full of concrete or other construction debris will lead to blockages and water sags during operation. Although international guidelines give clear recommendations for gate valves (every 400-500m within main lines and for branch lines longer than 200-250m), all important side branches should be equipped with a gate valves. This will allow much faster pressure tests and leak detection during construction and will allow emergency measures if problems occur. Ruling technical guidelines and norms EN 1091 DWA-A 116-1 (also known as ATV-DVWK-A 116, Part 1) WEF (Water Environment Federation) Alternative Sewer Systems (Second Edition -2008) WSA 07 (Australian Code) AS 4310 – 2004 (Australian Vacuum Interface Valve Standard) External links Airvac, International (U.S.A.) Roevac, International (Germany) Iseki, UK Quavac, Netherlands Flovac,